Truck is an improved design of the electric truck and has a number of privileges favorable in comparison with stacker. Used in large warehouses with high-rise shtebelirovaniem. Lift height up to 12m reach truck and load capacity - 2.5t. This type of technology minimal loss of load capacity at maximum lift height. Another great advantage of the mast reach truck-advance forward and back.
Truck (from the English. Reachtruck - literally "gruzodostavschik") or retraction refers to the most complex mind warehouse lifting drive technology. Truck technical device can be attributed to hybrid forklift and lift truck with a retractable device forward lifting force over a distance of 600 to 1200 mm. The main features of this symbiosis in reach trucks are very high performance (speed of movement of vehicles and lifting almost twice the same parameters stackers), when combined with the economy, excellent maneuverability and can be equipped with an enormous number of additional options. By the way, reach rich and pronounced the same in English, the latter translated means "rich" that gives free rein to imagination and allows you to translate reachtruck listening as a "functionally rich loader."
Reach - the device is sufficiently highly specialized, their intended purpose - work in warehouses area not less than 500 m. meters with a height of rack designs from 4000 to 11500mm and wide aisle for loading technique does not allow to use a conventional truck. Truck loads allows to operate in the Rack space at least 2700mm, while for the most compact loader requires a minimum of 3300mm.
Principle of operation reach truck can be described as follows - the car drives up the goods to the place of storage, raises it to the desired height and pallet installation in a cell, in addition to travel ahead of the reach truck, going by extending carriage forklift inside shelf space. As accurate as possible to put or take a pallet rack Reach help function of lateral displacement and tilt the forks. Specifications reach trucks tell us that this kind of technology is able to lift a weight from 1.3 to 3.5 tons to a height of 11500mm. Virtually all the models reach trucks have very high residual capacities, for example, a weight of 2.5 tons Truck can lift to a height of 5000mm. With the above principle, the question of the stability of the machine, which, unlike the truck is not due to the presence of the counterweight, and the center of gravity of cargo between the support brackets.
We can not say that the appearance of reach trucks in the Russian market, given its specificity, a random phenomenon. In contrast, growth trends warehouses up with the continuing shortage of warehouse space suggest the popularity of growth such as high technology reach trucks. The high cost of reach trucks is compensated fairly high performance and long life technology - 10-12years (subject to the rules of operation and regular maintenance). Design features reach trucks due to the need the following tasks - ensuring a high level of productivity while minimizing costs of operation, safety and ergonomics of the operator. Implementation of the tasks is due to the strict adherence to the high level of performance components and assemblies reach truck.
Consider the most common issues.
- The rigid and durable chassis reach truck provides car high maneuverability and stability, support high residual capacities when lifting loads to a maximum height, provides easy access to the machine nodes and fast replacement of the battery.
- Mast reach truck should have the following functions - lateral displacement and tilt lift, automatic deceleration extension and lift at the extreme upper and lower positions of the fork that provides an accurate and safe operation of the load. Construction mast reach truck is designed to minimize its fluctuation in lifting the load to a great height, as well as to provide maximum operator visibility of the working area. As for the chassis, mast reach truck is part of the responsibility for the residual capacity.
- In Reach traction motor and motor for motors usually asynchronous, which provides high performance in all load conditions and low operating costs, fast and smooth acceleration of the car to the maximum speed (14 km / h) and the ability to select a desired mode of transportation.
- Reach truck hydraulic system should provide a wide range of rated capacity and equipped with damping system, which affects the quick and accurate response to operator commands and is undoubtedly one of the factors to ensure safe operation. By the same factors may include the presence of self-diagnosis function Reach and automatic power off presence sensor operator and safety devices neutral position.
- Cab reach truck is designed so that the operator has a full view of the working area and easy access to all control systems, not tired at work and was protected from possible falls and collisions with shipping other appliances or shelves.
- Steering reach truck, as well as on any steering technique solves the problem of easy maneuvering in motion, all current models present electronic system of automatic control of sensitivity to the steering wheel depending on how fast the car is moving.
- Basic parameters of the system electronics reach truck - an extreme degree of reliability and the ability to work the maximum number of settings other vehicle systems to adapt to a certain type of work performed.
- Brakes reach truck besides the main purpose - to slow down, has the task of energy recovery, in other words, energy recovery in battery that gives Reach to conduct a longer time to work without a break to recharge.
Reach truck - miracle folding technique
Worldwide, more extensive use of intra-loading equipment for stacking goods. As statistics show, the indicators of its implementation in the last decade have increased more than twice, and they grew more intense than the popularity of such a widespread product as forklifts. Volumes of consumption of intra-equipment also increased annually, although still more than two times lower than the level of consumption in smaller countries such as Denmark and Switzerland, not to mention the leaders in the field of automation and mechanization of storage facilities - Germany and France.
Along with the technical improvement, increasing efficiency, ergonomics and safety, one of the main trends in the development of intra-loading devices is their specialty. A characteristic illustration, indicating the effectiveness of this approach to development, is the activities of the Swedish company Atlet, which we described in one of the last issues of our magazine. Currently, there is a wide range of variety of devices that are used at different stages of the process moving and storage of cargo and adapted to perform common operations for a specific set of conditions (design, height and depth of shelving; largest Aisle intensity of work, etc. ). One of the most interesting types of such equipment are retractable glazed stacker forklift (mast), or reach trucks.
Reach - Equipment for domestic stocks is relatively new. Until now, it is outlandish, "exotic", is little known to the wide consumer use and, perhaps, only in the most "advanced" storage terminals. Indeed, this technique is not cheap, and works effectively in areas that use rack equipment height of 6.0 m, which we found still quite rare. Meanwhile in the world reach trucks have been known for a long time: the first such car in more than 40 years ago created a doctor-engineer from Germany Friedrich Jungheinrich, founder of the now famous German company «Jungheinrich AG».
Truck difficult to be attributed to any type or class of warehouse materials handling. In Europe, this device is usually referred to as "high-rise" piler, but in Japan it is considered likely loader, though differing from the traditional models which are equipped with a counterweight (forklift truck). Characteristically, all Japanese manufacturers industrial trucks, including releasing exclusively counterbalance trucks - Toyota (to buying firm BT), Komatsu, Nissan, Mitsubishi, Shinko, - produced and reach trucks. Anyway, these machines can be successfully combine the functions of both the truck and forklift "counterweight" loader. If the first Truck took small size, and hence the ability to work in narrow Aisle, then from the second - mobility, their increased permeability due to the increased diameter of the wheels and the ground clearance, high speed lifting (two times greater than that of the truck) and movement (40% more than the stacker).
For example, if the normal operation of the compact (tricycle) forklift Aisle minimum width should be at least 3.3 m, reach truck then it is almost the same as that of the self-propelled truck, operated standing or seated operator - 2.7 m reach truck Stability is achieved not by the presence of the counterweight as a conventional truck, but due to two consoles with wheel bearings that allows center of gravity within the contour of the support and the drive wheels.
Have this machine and other characteristic differences associated with its use and to identify design features. It is indispensable for maintenance of high-rise shelving. Depending on the model and type of lifting frame Truck capable of lifting cargo on pallets weighing up to 2.5 tons to a maximum height of 5.3 m or loads up to 800 kg - 11.5 m, it is natural that in the first case, the frame must have increased stiffness and damping capacity quenching sway on top. It should be noted another important point that should be considered when selecting the desired model: like any other handling equipment, reach trucks have their characteristic gruzovysotnuyu - chart capacities. This means that if the weight of the load, be lifted to a height of 6.0 m, usually corresponds to par, the weight of the load, which Truck raises to a maximum height of 11.0 m, is much smaller and, as a rule, should not exceed 800 kg. Design of this machine is fundamentally different from the structures close to her in the use of stackers and forklift mainly to the fact that the frame has a reach truck forklift retractable in the horizontal direction at a distance of 600 ... 1100 mm (below we will use the term "pull-out frame stacker forklift" as a synonym for reach truck). Probably, hence, the name of these devices - Truck (from the English. Reach truck - letters. "Delivering" cargo transporter).
Thus, to install the pallet in the rack must first lift reach truck pallet loaded with the desired level of the storage rack, by moving the forklift frame to push it into the shelving space and then to pass further in the direction of the rack 60 cm (longitudinal placement tray) or 20 cm (transverse placement tray). Models of some companies in addition to the function extension masts have telescopic forks that allows stacked pallets in special racks for double depth. To rise to a height of 4.5 ... 5.0 m commonly used forklift frame consisting of two sections, and to rise to their increased height - three-section (triplex). As a rule, all reach trucks with three section frames and have the function of "free lift" fork. To facilitate removal of the stack with a forklift equipped with a lift device tilt frame (usually to lift 6.5 ... 7.0 m) and / or tilt the forks (with a lifting height over 7.0 m), and for better load positioning when capture or stacked in a rack - a device (carriage), providing lateral offset fork.
Movement of the machine, its management and the rise of cargo going through three separate motors. These units, as in many other media floor vehicles with electric drive, powered by lead-acid batteries (usually 48 V and a capacity of 360 ... 700 A · h - depending on the model), which must be recharged . Typically, when two-three-shift work schedule requires one or two extra batteries are recharged during operation. The latest models are equipped with the leading manufacturers of AC induction motors. The design of such drives are no replaceable carbon brushes, so they do not require maintenance and are performed in a sealed enclosure, ideally protected from dirt, dust and moisture. Besides asynchronous motors have a number of other advantages over previously used DC motors, providing:
- intensive acceleration when moving from place;
- fast reverse stroke;
- smooth movement of the machine and lift the load;
- more time on a single charge thanks to energy recovery (return to battery) during braking and lowering the machine.
Functions to be performed in a confined space Truck identified and its other features: the driver's seat is not located here as usual - in the direction of motion and perpendicular to it. In addition to classical models with one manageable (steering) wheel, there are the so-called four-way reach trucks: they turn all the wheels, so apart from going back and forth and they are able to turn to move left and right, and the turning radius of such machines is much smaller. Some manufacturers produce and "multipass" reach truck with a large number of degrees of freedom (see below lineups individual producers).
Due to the fact that operate reach trucks with goods at very high altitude, a special place in their design take safety issues. Cab trucks equipped with a "transparent" Lattice protective roof, giving a good overview of the work area at high altitude and at the same time protecting the operator from possible falling stack or parts thereof. Ram Truck is made tougher, provides a good overview of the area of ??cargo handling. Hydraulic control system is equipped with a special damping system that allows you to slow the advance of the frame forklift in extreme upper and lower positions and more smoothly execute commands even the not clear operator actions, but retains the speed of lifting and lowering the forks, and hence the performance is quite high. When working at low temperatures, such as cold stores, reach trucks equipped with glazed cabin heaters.